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Sources of emergency information

Safety Procedures for dealing with envenomation by Conidae
Authored by Suzanne Sheherd, Residency Director, Associate Professor of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and James Martin M.D., Emergency Medicine, Hospital of the university of Pennsylvania.


    • Background
    • Pathophysiology
    • Frequency
    • Mortality/Morbidity
    • History
    • Physical
    • Causes
    • Lab Studies
    • Imaging Studies
    • Procedures
    • Emergency Department Care
    • Further Inpatient Care
    • Patient Education


  • Brown, C.K., Shepherd, S.M. (1992) Marine Trauma, Envenomations and Intoxications. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 10: 385-408.
  • Auerbach, P.S. (1991) Marine Envenomations. The New England Journal of Medicine 7: 486-493.
  • Auerbach, P.S. (1995) In: Wilderness Medicine: Management of Wilderness and Environmental Emergencies. Chicago: Mosby: pp. 1327-1374.

The Diver's First Aid Reference to Potentially Hazardous Marine Life

The Diver's First Aid Reference to Potentially Hazardous Marine Life is a four page laminated guide that was designed to be kept with a diver's log book. Produced by Jeffrey Howe, Senior Research Associate at Auburn University, this reference guide covers a wide range of potentially hazardous marine life including bristle worms, coelenterates (jellyfish, sea anemones, etc.), echinoderms (sea cucumbers, sea urchins, starfish), bite wounds, sting rays, venomous fishes, hard corals, mollusks (cone shells, octopus), sea snakes, and sponges. For each group of marine life covered, the etiology, symptoms, treatment, and preventative measures are covered in detail. In addition, there is a first aid kit check list and an area for important telephone numbers (e.g., chamber, hospital, relative, U.S. Coast Guard, etc.). The Diver's First Aid Reference to Potentially Hazardous Marine Life is not only essential for divers, it should be one of the first items a marine aquarist should obtain, read, and keep for emergency situations.

For a laminated copy, please send $1.50 to Auburn University Marine Extension and Research Center, 4170 Commanders Drive, Mobile, AL 36615-1413. Up to five unlaminated copies are available free of charge.

Venomous Bites and Stings - Active First Aid Online v2.5

  • includes Signs and Symptoms
  • Care and Treatment

Australian Venom Database
Maintained by Bryan Grieg Fry, Peptide Laboratory, Centre for Drug Design and Development, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld., 4072, Australia.

"The purpose of this page is to provide an online guide to Australian venomous snakes and other venomous animals. The focus is primarily on the venom and the clinical effects of the venom. Publications for each genera are linked to provide a service to people who may not have access to either of these databases. Publication lists will be updated quarterly."

The Molluscs link provides detailed information about the biochemistry and biology of venoms and toxins of individual species of Cone shells including:

  • Conus geographus (Geographer's Cone)
  • Conus magus (Cone of Magi)
  • Conus marmoreus (Marbled Cone)
  • Conus pennaceus
  • Conus purpurascens (Purple Cone)
  • Conus striatus (Striated Cone)
  • Conus textile (Textile Cone : Cloth-of-Gold Cone)
  • Conus tulipa

Do you have any positive comments or/and questions ? Please send to Dr. Bruce Livett

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