New on this Homepage in 1997
Page last modified - on 28 December 1997 at 12:18:20 AM . Continued
on What's new in 1998
New items for inclusion are always welcome. Please mail me suggestions at the
following address: email@example.com
See also What's New on this HomePage in 1996 or
Visit the Cone shell Bookshop ( 9 titles)
28 December 1997
- Added reviews and 2 new titles to the Cone shell Bookshop (now 9
- Added link enabling 7 listings about "cone
shells" from Encyclopedia Brittanica.
- Added link to Cones of Senegal, M. Pin and
K.D. Leung-Tack [Review of the Senegalese cones following the classification according to
the characteristics of the anal canal].
23 December 1997
- Added reference to action of Conus pennaceus venom. Diallo,
B., Vanderheyden, P.M.L., De Backer, J.P. and Vauquelin, G. (1997) The venom of Conus
pennaceus inhibits the binding of [3H]neuropeptide Y by direct interaction with
the radioligand. Neurochemistry International 32: (1) 39-46.
21 December 1997
- A Cone Shell
Catches Dinner - including Quick Time Movie 2.2 Mb .
Preview this movie which shows the envenomation of a goldfish by Conus magus, using
its proboscis to fire a poison dart (radula) into the small fish. The fish is then eaten !
(From Neurex Corp -Science and Publications -
Articles). - [original article in Worth magazine].
- Read about The Discovery and Development of
SNX-111, the conotoxin from Conus magus that is being trialled for the
treatment of chronic pain.
[This article is excerpted from Worth Magazine "Pain, Profit and Sweet Relief -
the story of a biotech company on the verge". by Craig Canine. Worth magazine, USA, March issue, 1997 pp.78-158. ]
20 December 1997
- Welcome to Cairns OnLine -Environment Guide ~ Molluscs
~ Cone Shells
18 December 1997
16 December 1997
- Added link to Serge Gofas & Jacques Le Renard's - Check List of European Marine Mollusca. To
search for cone shells, enter CONIDAE in data entry box.
- Added link to Californian Academy of Sciences (Department of
Invertebrate Zoology and Geology) collection of mollusks - CONIDAE. This is a GOPHER
search of their database of recent invertebrates, summarized here.
- Search the University of Florida Malacology Main Collection -
266,710 records. To search for cone shells, enter conus in the Genus
box. Result of this search is presented in Table
format. Default setting yields first 10 records. You can continue to search for the next
10 records or choose up to 200 records to search each time.
12 December 1997
- Added link to Recent
& Fossil Mollusca - a list of Systematic Research Collections held at various
museums and other locations.
- Added link to Malacological Societies and Shell
Clubs - a world listing. Originally compiled by Philippe Bouchet for Unitas
Malacologica and updated for the COA Web site (CONCH-NET)
by Deborah Wills. Includes shell clubs and malacological societies in Australia, China, Europe, Fiji, Guam, Hong Kong, Israel,
Istanbul, Japan, Mexico, New Caledonia, New Zealand,
Okinawa, Panama, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Russia, South Africa, South America, Taiwan
and the USA.
10 December 1997
9 December 1997
- Added option for automatic notification of changes to this page via PageWatch
2 December 1997
23 November 1997
21 November 1997
- Link to image of the cone shell Conus daucus - a
rare specimen from New York
Bight waters. Phil Stoffer and Paula Messina state that its normal habitat is in
Caribbean waters and that this specimen may actually be prehistoric !
20 November 1997
- View information about some recent Patents on
- Bibliography search on CONIDAE
in Dr. Gary Rosenberg's Western Atlantic gastropods database.
- Bibliography search on CONUS in
Dr. Gary Rosenberg's Western Atlantic gastropods database.
- Search for CONIDAE
in Dr. Gary Rosenberg's Western Atlantic gastropods database -(MALACOLOG 2.0).
18 November 1997
- Added report of European clinical trials
with conotoxin MVIIA, (SNX-111 which now has been granted the approved generic name Ziconotide).
- Added information about a new compound
isolated from a carnivorous spider venom that blocks neuronal
R-type calcium channels. Whereas the omega conotoxin MVIIA blocks neuronal N-type calcium
channels, a newly discovered toxin from the venom of a carnivorous spider venom, blocks
R-type calcium channels. The compound, known as SNX-482 was isolated from the
venom of the African tarantula, Hysterocrates gigas, and is the first R-type calcium
channel blocker described. The R-type calcium channel is believed to play an important
role in the body's natural communication network where it contributes to the regulation of
brain function. Details concerning its discovery were presented by researchers from Neurex
Corporation at the 27th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience in New
Orleans, November 1997.
7 November 1997
(Galle, Sri Lanka), C.adamsoni
(Aitutaki, Cook Islands), C.aemulus
(Magnetic Island, Australia), C.bullatus
(Bohol, Philippines), C.dominicanus
(Bequia, Grenadines), C.dusaveli
(Cebu, Philippines), C.ichinosaeana,
Kuroda (Panglao, Bohol, Philippines), C.infrenatus (Jeffreys Bay), C.kuroharai (Balut Is,
Mindanao, Philippines), C.phuketensis
(Algoa Bay), C.pulcher
Lightfoot (Casamance, Senegal), C.thailandis (Thailand), C.timorensis (Maurituis), C.victor Broderip (Lombok,
Indonesia), C.victoriae (Broome,
Australia) and C.zonatus (Maldives).
- Added link to a short article about CONES - THE ANIMAL by Bob
- Added link to images of the following cones (for auction at
http://www.molluscs.net/ until Saturday 15 November, 1997):
Costa, F. H. A. (1997) Natural history and evolution patterns
in Conus californicus . La Conchiglia (The Shell) no. 278.
- Added reference to two articles in La Conchiglia (The Shell) about Conus
californicus and Conus eximius.
Korn, W. (1997) Notes about Conus eximius from Vietnam. La Conchiglia (The
Shell) no. 279.
4 November 1997
- Added reference to Cones of Senegal, by M. Pin and K.D.
Leung-Tak (1995), Supplement to issue no. 277 (October-December 1995) of "La
Conchiglia" (ISSN 0394-0152): Yearbook 1995, ISBN 88-86463-01-4. 56 pp. Colour
photographs and SEM illustrations. Review of the Senegalese cones following the
classification according to the characteristics of the anal canal.. The
"canal"on which this study is based is not the posterior aperture of the shell
but a long depression formed by the edge of the mantle on the penultimate whorl just
before the beginning of the last one. Descriptions of the following 16 species, considered
valid, are given : C. ambiguus, C. belairensis, C. bruguieresi, C. cloveri, C.
echinophilus, C. ermineus, C. genuanus, C. guinaicus, C. hybridus, C. cacao, C.
mediterraneus (name preferred to C. ventricosus), C. mercator, C. pineaui,
C. pulcher, C. tabidus, C. unifasciatus. This supplement can be obtained from Capricornica
Publications, or from Maria. A. Angioy, c/-
28 October 1997
Villarroya, M., De-la Fuente, M-T., Lopez, M.G., Gandia, L. and
Garcia, A.G. (1997) Distinct effects of w-toxins and various groups of Ca2+
entry inhibitors on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and Ca2+ channels of
chromaffin cells. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 320: 249-257.
- Added reference to paper on effects of w-conotoxins on calcium
channels and on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in chromaffin cells.
25 October 1997
- News on Conidae by Dieter Rockel and Werner Korn, 49
pp. with 1 colour and 9 black and white plates, brochure, size 210 x 295 mm. Published
1990 **DM 16
- Zur identitat von Conus lizardensis Crosse 1865 und Conus
sibogae Shepman 1913.
- Conus species from the western Indian Ocean, dredged by Soviet
"This first part of a series of reports on Recent Conidae
contains two important papers on cone shells from Australia and the Indo-Pacific. The
excellent scientific description and fine illustrations make this booklet a must for every
malacologist as well for the collector of cone shells." Source klaus and christina
groh c/o christa hemmen verlag, buchhandlung und antiquariat mainzer str. 25
D-55546 hackenheim. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org
- Added 3 links to cone shells contained in the microshells homepage
13 October 1997
BARCELONA, Spain - (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Sept. 29, 1997 -- Neurex Corporation (Nasdaq/NM: NXCO) today reported data
from its Phase I/II
clinical trial of the Company's lead pain therapeutic, SNX-111 [w-conotoxin MVIIA]
in the treatment of chronic malignant and non-malignant pain. The data were presented at
the International Association for the Study of Pain meeting in Barcelona by William Brose,
M.D., Director of the Pain Management Center for Stanford University. (see Yahoo Finance
Business Wire link above for details).
12 October 1997
Abstract: The toxic metabolites of diatoms, blue-green algae,
sea-cucumber, sponges, coelenterate, and tunicates have been reviewed. The origin,
biosynthesis, mechanism of action of saxitoxin, tetrodotoxin, brevetoxins, palytoxin and
their derivatives, ciguatoxins, maitotoxin, diarrhetic shellfish toxins, pectenotoxins,
yessotoxin, neosuruatoxin, and prosurugatoxin have been discussed. Cone shell and sea snake venoms have also been reviewed.
Murray, L., Mudge, L., Rostas, J. A. P., Sim, A. T. R & Capon,
R.J. (1993) Isopalinurin : A new protein phosphatase inhibitor from a Southern Australian
marine sponge, Dysidea sp. Aust. J. Chem . 46, 1291-1294.
- Added review reference by Bhakuni, D.S. (1995) The toxic metabolites
of marine organisms. J. Scientific & Industrial Research. 54 (12): 702-716.
6 October 1997
29 September 1997
Shon, K-J., Grilley, M., Jacobsen, R., Cartier,
E., Hopkins, C., Gray, W.R., Watkins, M., Hillyard, D.R., Rivier, J., Torres, J.,
Yoshikami, D. and Olivera, B.M. (1997) A noncompetitive peptide inhibitor of the nicotinic
acetylcholine receptor from Conus purpurascens venom. Biochemistry 36: 9581-9587.
- Added reference to a new conotoxin, y
-conotoxin PIIIE, from Conus purpurascens which has the following covalent
structure: HOOCCLYGKCRRYOGCSSASCCQR* (O=4-trans
hydroxyproline; *indicates an amidated C-terminus). The disulfide connectivity of the
toxin is unrelated to the a- or aA-conotoxins, the Conus peptide families that are
competitive inhibitors of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), but acts
non-competitively, and shows homology to the m-conotoxins (which are Na+
17 August 1997
- Added reference to Hann, R.M., Pagan, O.R., Gregory, L.M., Jacome, T.
and Eterovic, V.A (1997) The 9-arginine residue of residue of a-conotoxin GI is
responsible for its selective high affinity for the ag agonist site on the electric organ
acetylcholine receptor. Biochemistry 36: 9051-9056.
- Updated information on calcium channels and omega
18 July 1997
13 July 1997
- Added reference on "Conus geographus envenomation",
by David Fegan and David Andresen, in The Lancet 349: 1672, 1997. [This is an
account of a non-fatal envenomation treated at Honiara Central Hospital, Solomon Islands.
"A 24-year-old male nurse was admitted with a 12-h history of progressive generalised
weakness and poor coordination. The previous night, while collecting seashells, he had
suddenly felt a mild stinging sensation in his right hand. His systemic symptoms began
about 30 mins after this local injury. On examination he had a small puncture wound on the
middle finger of his right hand., without erythema or swelling. He was dysarthric, had
bilateral ptosis, and an absent gag reflex. All peripheral muscle groups were weak, and
his coordination was impaired without cerebellar features. His peak expiratory flow rate
was 290 L/min (predicted 600 L/min). The remainder of his physical examination was normal.
The shell responsible for the injury was recovered by his relatives. He was admitted for
observation and a portable pulse oximeter was used to monitor the adequacy of his
ventilation. His oxygen saturation remained above 95% on room air. 12 h after admission he
developed acute urinary retention for which he required catheterisation. Although weak, he
could walk unaided after 48 h. He was discharged after 72 h at which time his physical
examination was normal. When reviewed at medical outpatients a month later he had no
complaints." In addition to C.geographus, (12 fatalities
reported prior to 1980), two other species, C.textile and C.marmoreus
have been reported to kill humans, although the plausibility of these reports has been
questioned on the basis of venom studies on dissected shells (Kohn, AJ "Cone shell
stings". Hawaii Med. J. 17: 528-532, 1958]
- Added reference on identification of the aminoacid residues of the a
and b subunits of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) that determine
sensitivity to a-conotoxin MII (a-CTX MII) from Conus magus.
Harvey, S.C., McIntosh, J.M., Cartier, G.E., Maddox, F.N. and Luetje, C.W. (1997)
Determinants of specificity for alpha-conotoxin MII on alpha3/beta2 neuronal nicotinic
receptors. Molecular Pharmacology 51: 336-342.[ Conus magus,
alpha-conotoxin MII, 16aa peptide, blocks neuronal nAChRs composed of a3b2 subunits.
Identified residues on the a and b subunits of neuronal nAChRs that determine sensitivity
to a-CTX MII. Screened series of a and b subunit chimeras to identify critical sequence
segments. Then used site-directed mutagenesis to identify individual residues important in
determination of a-CTX MII sensitivity of the a3b2 subunit combination. Results:
for a3 subunit, sequence segments 121-181 and 181-195 were the determinants of sensitivity
and Lys185 and Ile 188 are the critical residues. For b2 subunit, segment 54-63 is
important for sensitivity and Thr 59 is an important residue. The only mutation that had
an effect on sensitivity was b2 T59K. These receptors were significantly (4-fold) less
sensitive to MII. MII block was not affected by introducing a negative charge (Asp = D) at
residue 59 of b2 (T59D). The b2 T59D mutation had no effect on a-CTX MII sensitivity.
- Added reference on the affinity of binding of alpha conotoxins from Conus
geographus and Conus striatus to the muscle-type nicotinic receptors on
BC3H-1 cells and Torpedo californica electric organ.
Groebe, D.R., Gray, W.R., and Abramson, S.N. (1997) Determinants
involved in the affinity of a-conotoxins GI and SI for the muscle subtype of nicotinic
acetylcholine receptors. Biochemistry 36: 6469-6474.[These results indicate that
positions 9 and 10 in a-conotoxins GI and SI are involved in complex species- and
subunit-dependent interactions with nicotinic receptors.]
- Added reference to work on characterization of a carboxylase enzyme
from the venom ducts of the fish hunting Conus species Conus radiatus,
thought to be responsible for a post-translational modification (carboxylation of
glutamate (Glu) residues to g-carboxyglutamte (Gla)) first described in Conus
peptides belonging to the conantokin family and more recently in conantokin-R which shows
homology to previously characterized conantokins, and the recently characterized
bromosleeper peptide, which appears unrelated to conantokins.
Stanley, T.B., Stafford, D.W., Olivera, B.M. and Bandyopadhyay, P.K.
(1997) Identification of a vitamin K-dependent carboxylase in the venom duct of a Conus
snail. FEBS Letters 407 85-88.
- Added reference to differential actions of alpha conotoxins MII (from
Conus magus) and ImI (from Conus imperialis) on nicotinic receptors on B and
C neurones in the 10th paravertebral sympathetic ganglion of the leopard frog (Rana
Tavazoie, S.F., Tavazoie, M.F., McIntosh, J.M., Olivera, B.M and
Yoshikami, D. (1997) Differential block of nicotinic synapses on B versus C neurones in
sympathetic ganglia of frog by a-conotoxins MII and ImI. Brit. J. Pharmacol. 120:
- Added link to molecular structures of selected conotoxins (below)
which can be displayed using browser plug-ins for RasMol and VRML. The VRML feature of
Netscape 3.1 is particularly effective for obtaining a 3D view of the conotoxin molecules.
- Omega conotoxin GVIA: w-CTX-GVIA
- Mu conotoxin GIIIb: u-CTX-GIIIb
- Omega conotoxin GXIa: w-CTX-GXIa
- Added these two links related to clinical trials of SNX-111 (to cone-snx.htm)
- Added these two excellent articles on conotoxin
- "Pain, Profit and Sweet Relief - the story of a biotech
company on the verge. It all begins with a killer snail" by Craig Canine. Worth
magazine, USA, March issue, 1997 pp.78-158. Highly recommended. This
comprehensive and clearly written article is nicely illustrated with photographs of Conus
magus envenomating a small fish; Neurex CEO Paul Goddard; the lab that cooks up SNX-111;
the Synchromed programmable pump that delivers the drug; a snail compound being tested on
rat-brain tissue; Dr. Baldomero Olivera, the snail man; and of Dr. George Miljanich, who
first saw a use for SNX-111. The article tells the story of the founding and rise of
Neurex Corp and relates personal accounts of the use of SNX-111 (conotoxin MVIIA) for the
treatment of intractible pain. For text of this article see Worth-online at: http://www.worth.com/articles/M9703F01.html(Part I):
[ARCHIVED Part I], and
[ARCHIVED Part II].
- Reform of the Killer Snails by Sandra J. Ackerman.
National Centre for Research Resources Reporter Volume XXI, No. 2. pp 5-7, 1997
(March/April issue). [ARCHIVED]
A readable account of the isolation, synthesis and actions of conotoxins and the use of
MALDI - matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization - an advanced form of mass
spectrometry to analyze conotoxin structure. Related references for further reading :
- Nakamura, T., Yu, Z., Fainzilber, M. and Burlingame, A.L (1996) Mass
spectrometric revision of the structure of a cysteine-rich peptide toxin with
gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, TxVIIA, from the sea snail, Conus textile. Protein
Science 5: 524-530.
- Craig, A.G., Fischer, W.H., Rivier, J.E. et al (1995) MS-based
scanning methodologies applied to Conus venom. Techniques in Protein Chemistry
6: 31-38, 1995.
- Added reference describing a novel post-translational modification
(halogenation of tryptophan) of a heptapeptide isolated from the imperial cone, Conus
imperialis, a worm-eating cone, and from a 33-amino acid peptide from the radial cone,
Conus radiatus, a fish-eating cone. "The occurrence of
6-bromotryptophan in Conus peptides could be due to an adaptation involving the
recruitment of an enzymatic system already generally distributed among marine organisms,
the cone snails have used this more general bromination chemistry evolved in marine
ecosystems in a specialized way in their venom ducts".
Craig. A.G., Jimenez, E.C., Dykert, J., Nielsen, D.B., Gulyas, J.,
Abogadie, F.C., Porter, J., Rivier, J.E., Cruz, L.J., Olivera, B.M. and McIntosh, M.
(1997) A novel post-translational modification involving bromination of tryptophan -
Identification of the residue, L-6-bromotryptophan, in peptides from Conus imperialis
and Conus radiatus venom.J. Biol. Chem. 272, 4689-4698.
- Added link to Bruce Livett's talk to The Royal Society of Victoria,
13 March 1997 entitled : "Beauty
and the Beast: Molecular Prospecting for Novel Drugs from the Sea". (Describes
his research with marine neurotoxins, in particular, conotoxins that target the
neuronal nicotinic receptor).
- Added reference to revised structure studies on Conotoxin TxVIIA
which has the conserved Cys framework of delta-conotoxins and omega-conotoxins, paralytic
activity against mollusks and contains two gamma carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues and a
high negative charge (-4).
Nakamura, T., Zhonghua, Y., Fainzilber, M. and Burlingame, A.L.
(1996) Mass spectrometric-based revision of the structure of a cysteine-rich peptide toxin
with gamma-carboxyglutamic acid, TxVIIA, from the sea snail, Conus textile. Protein
Science 5: 524-530.
- Added link to Guido Poppe's new database of molluscs on the homepage,
listing 50,000 names with author, type species, and approximate region. The database is
named CYBERCONCHOLOGY and includes under Class GASTROPODA, type CONIDAE a
list of 658 Cone shells.
- CYBERCONCHOLOGY is a malacological tool that lists 50,000
names of taxa that have been considered as valid in recent literature (classified
according to Vaught). The idea for this database originated from Goto & Poppe -
"Listing of Living Mollusca", but references to the literature have been omitted
here, and names will be added as time allows.
- Over 3500 type species of genera are shown (T).
- In order to be able to find immediately the family and/or species you
are looking for, you can use the search engine of major browser programs such as Netscape.
- This database is a result of exchange of ideas on the Conch-L mailing
list concerning the now sold out book by Goto & Poppe, "A
Listing of Living Mollusca" about one year ago. In announcing this database on
the Conch-L mailing list, Guido Poppe said "Despite the many imperfections (this is a
compilation of the important scientific and popular literature of the latest three
decades) we think it may be of use for many among you. It is our goal to regularly update
this database, and we invite the many specialists among you to take authorship for
families". Use the Search function in Netscape or your favourite browser to find the
item of interest in the database.
- The four volume set of Goto
& Poppe's "Listing of Living Mollusca" is organized in two different ways to
speed information retrieval; Volume I, numbers 1 & 2 lists shells alphabetically by
specific names (as does the COA index). Volumes II, numbers 1 & 2 list shells by
Family and Genus, with a guide to family locations at the back of each volume.
- Added reference to Australian stamp with image of Conus textile
(Collect Australian Stamps # 940 768) to my table listing cone
shells on stamps (constamp.htm). This is a 45cent stamp issued on 11 June 1986 issued
as part of a series titled "Marine Life Definitives". The constamp.htm page is
under construction and being maintained by Dr. John Down (email@example.com)
to whom notification of additional entries would be most appreciated.
- Added image of Conus
magus (from Guido T.
Poppe & Yoshihiro Goto's conchology archive) kindly brought to my attention by Dr.
Bill Coplin, Wayne-State Univ. Detroit, MI, USA) who is currently involved in phase II/III
testing of SNX-111 (alias omega-contoxin MVIIA, now
renamed CI-1009 following purchase from Neurex Corp. by Parke-Davis)
for the neuro-resuscitation of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.
- Added two references from David Goldenberg's University of Utah
laboratory, on folding of omega-conotoxins:
- Price-Carter, M., Gray, W.M. and Goldenberg, D.P. (1996). Folding of
omega-conotoxins: 1. Efficient disulfide-coupled folding of mature sequences in vitro.
Biochemistry 35: 15537-15546.
- Price-Carter, M., Gray, W.M. and Goldenberg, D.P. (1996). Folding of
omega-conotoxins: 2. Influence of precursor sequences and protein disulfide isomerase.
Biochemistry 35: 15547-15557.
- Added link to Naturama Rare Books and Reprints
listing of a reference by Abbott, T.R. (1967) on the "Venom apparatus and
geographical distribution of Conus gloriamaris".
- Added images of Jon-Paul Bingham and John Down observing C.textile laying eggs in our marine tank in the laboratory in
- UPDATE ON CLINICAL TRIALS WITH SNX-111: NOTE: SNX-111, alias omega-contoxin
MVIIA, has now been renamed CI-1009 following purchase from Neurex Corp. by
Parke-Davis. It is also undergoing Stage II/III clinical trials in the USA for the
neuro-resuscitation of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients.
- Previous link
to SNX-111 at Doctors Guide, updated Nov.18,'96 with new clinical studies on SNX-111 .
Phase II/III clinical trial with SNX-111 to evaluate safety and efficacy in the
treatment of severe and intractable pain in patients with cancer or AIDS (HIV)
(Note: some of these links bring up long documents which contain
other material. Use your web browser's FIND button to locate the information on SNX)
- Added two references to structure/ function studies on
- Lamthanh, H., Tremeau, O. and Menez, A. (1996) On the functionally
important residues of alpha-conotoxin GI, as visited by L-alanine scanning. European
Peptide Symposium, October 1996.
- Hashimoto, K., Uchida, S., Yoshida, Y., Nishiuchi, S., Sakakibara, S.
and Yukari, K.(1985) Structure-activity relations of contoxins at the neuromuscular
junction. Europ. J. Pharmacol. 118: 351-354.
- Added reference to paper on characterization of conotoxins by mass
- Jones, A., Bingham,
J-P., Gehrmann, J., Bond, T., Loughnan, M., Atkins, A., Lewis, R.L. and Alewood, P.F.
(1996) Isolation and characterisation of conopeptides by HPLC/MS and MS/MS. Rapid
Commun. In Mass Spectrometry 10: 138-143.
"With respect to the belief that organic beings
have been created beautiful for the delight of man,- a belief which it has been pronounced
is subversive of my whole theory,- I may first remarkthat the sense of beauty obviously
depends on the nature of the mind, irrespective of any real quality in the admired object;
and that the idea of what is beautiful, is not innate or unalterable. We see this, for
instance, in the men of different races admiring an entirely different standard of beauty
in their women. If beautiful objects had been created solely for man's gratification, it
ought to be shown that before man appeared, there was less beauty on the face of the earth
than since he came on the stage. Were the beautiful volute and cone shells of the
Eocene epoch, and the gracefully sculptured ammonites of the Secondary period, created
that man might ages afterwards admire them in his cabinet ? ".
See also: What's New on this HomePage in 1996